and Juliet (Romeo and Juliet) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare . Written around the beginning of her career, she tells the story of two young lovers whose Chicago Criminal Defense Lawyer death reconciles their feuding families.
The play is part of Phen375 a series of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale and translated into English verse by Arthur Brooke in 1562 under the title The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet . In 1582, William Painter offers a version in prose in Palace of Pleasure . Shakespeare borrows from both, but the plot deepens developing the secondary characters, particularly Mercutio and Count Paris . Probably written between 1591 and 1595, the piece is published for the first time in quarto in 1597. This text, poor quality, has been corrected in subsequent editions, closer to the original Shakespeare.
Several factors indicate the budding talent of playwright Shakespeare: his particular use of the structure, including the alternation between comic and tragic scenes to increase the tension, development of secondary characters, and its use of intrigue annexes to enhance the story. Each character is assigned a particular poetic form, which can vary over the course of its evolution: Romeo and he becomes more adept at the sonnet over the room.
Romeo and Juliet has seen many adaptations in various media: theater, cinema, opera, musical. Under the Restoration , it is extensively edited by William Davenant . In the xviii th century , David Garrick also changes many scenes as amended, by removing the elements that are considered indecent; Opera Georg Benda adapted from the play omits much of the action and added a happy ending. Interpretations of the xix th century back to the original text and focus on increased realism. In 1935, the version of John Gielgud is very close to the text of Shakespeare, and employs Elizabethan costumes and accessories to enhance its dramatic character. The xx th century also sees adaptations as diverse as relatively faithful film of MGM (1936), the musical West Side Story in the 1950 or the 1996 film Romeo + Juliet , addressed to the generation MTV .
Princely House of Verona
Escalus , is the lord of Verona . He is exasperated by the quarrel between two families and tries to stop the fighting. It inflicts this purpose, the penalties more severe for the protagonists. It is in a sense responsible for the Chrome Wire Shelving tragedy because it was he who, after the death of Mercutio and Tybalt, Romeo decreed exile. It is an example of reconciliation between the two families and buried the love of Romeo and Juliet by saying the last words of the tragedy.
Paris , Noble Verona akin to Capulet. He falls in love with Juliet, and seeing is a good party, asks for her hand to her father. He obtained permission to court her. It certainly would have succeeded if his beloved had loved Romeo. On the death of Juliet will come to honor him in the tomb where he will die at the hands of Romeo.
Mercutio , a young nobleman of Verona , he is a friend of Romeo. It does not seem to belong to any of the two families but is a relative of Prince Escalus. The fact that Romeo avenges his death earned him of a fair trial is not the death penalty. Whimsical, funny and carefree, playing in the play the role of the buffoon, the poet. It introduces moments of lightness and lyricism. It is unintentionally one of the starting points of the tragedy as it is his death that will result in the banishment of Romeo. He was killed defending Romeo in a fight with Juliet’s cousin, Tybalt.
Capulet , head of one of two rival families in Verona , it is presented under various angles throughout the play: first as an old man on the verge of senility, then as a domestic tyrant, finally, as a good man. For a Capulet, he shows a certain tolerance of Romeo. His pride and his need for authority take precedence over all things. It still feels a lot of love auto insurance rates for his daughter, as he will show at the end of the room, in front of his body. Its permanent shift in attitude is sometimes a character almost grotesque and caricature but who can not remove a certain tragic grandeur in the closing scenes.
Lady Capulet , his wife, she has no specific role in history.
Juliet , is the only heir of the old Capulet. Promise to Count Paris, it is still madly in love with Romeo and he would be united by the bonds of marriage. She is torn between her love to Romeo and undeniable affection she bears to her cousin Tybalt. It will nevertheless remain faithful to Romeo, even during his exile. She will get a potion from Friar Lawrence being anything dead to avoid marrying Paris and wake up in the crypt beside the body of Romeo. It will respond to this death to join his love.
Tybalt , Juliet’s cousin and bitter enemy of the Montagues, he never hesitates to provoke a duel. The presence of Romeo at the feast of Capulets puts it out of it and it will cause the latter to a duel the next day. At that time he will kill the best friend of Romeo, Mercutio and will be following this, killed by Romeo, who no longer wish to avenge his only friend.
the nurse of Juliet, is she who raised Juliet, was fed as a baby. It has become over the years and plays her confidante thus the role of messenger between Romeo and Juliet. Solidarity has limits and does not hesitate to take the position of the mother that does Capulet is no difference between Romeo and Paris. It will intervene when the father of Juliette insult it and he gets plenty of love. It is also the basis for some scenes of dramatic tension in the light of the room.
Pierre , Samson and Gregory , servants.
Montaigu , patriarch of the House.
Lady Montague , his wife.
Romeo , son and heir of the father Montaigu, he, in Verona , an excellent reputation and the respect of the same old Capulet. Love at first a certain Rosaline, he falls in love with Juliet at first sight at the party of the Capulets. They will be married by Friar Lawrence in the greatest secrecy. Until his wedding night he will kill Tybalt in a fight to avenge his friend Mercutio. Exiled from Verona after this action, however, he obtained the forgiveness of Juliette and flees the city. Learned later the alleged death of Juliet, he misunderstands and goes to kill himself in the tomb, alongside Juliette.
Benvolio , Romeo’s cousin and friend.
Abraham and Balthasar , servants.
Friar Laurence , monk and priest, he was the confessor of Romeo, to whom he turns when it has problems. He agrees to marry him to Juliet in the hope of a reconciliation between the two families. It was he who, subsequently, prevent Romeo from killing himself, will convince him to accept his exile. It will give Juliet, when it will be desperate way to reach Romeo, the potion that will make it pass for dead. This is one of the most ambiguous, closer to the real alchemist xvi th century, the priest.
Brother John , a Franciscan monk.
An apothecary sells poison to Romeo.
A chorus reads the prologue of the first two acts.
Romeo and Juliet by Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee .
The rivalry between the Capulets and Montagues bloodshed throughout the city of Verona, to the dismay of Prince Escalus. Romeo, heir of the Montagues and madly in love with Rosaline, engages in the blackest of melancholy as it pushes. To console him, his friends Benvolio and Mercutio persuaded him to invite the party incognito as Capulet gives in honor of his daughter, Juliet, Romeo will be accepted as Rosaline. For Juliet, persuaded by his mother and his nurse, the ball will be an opportunity to meet a possible future husband, even though Capulet is in no hurry to marry his daughter.
The Montague recognized Tybalt Capulet prevented from seeking to annoy, to impose its authority and avoid a scandal at home, and also because he likes Romeo. Juliet Rosaline completely replaces the heart of Romeo, a sentiment shared by Juliet. The two young people are overwhelmed when they discover they belong to two rival families.
Romeo enters the Capulet garden to see Juliet. When she appears at her window, Juliet declares his love crazy mind being alone, Romeo tells him then his own.
Romeo consults her confessor, the Franciscan Friar Lawrence. It deplores the inconstancy of Romeo but sees in marriage to Juliette the hope of reconciling the Capulets and the Montagues.
Romeo told Juliet through the nurse, she pretext to go to confession at the brother Lawrence, who will celebrate their marriage.
Now married to Juliet, Romeo refuses to fight against the latter’s cousin, Tybalt, who insults him. Mercutio takes his place and Romeo, by interposing, is inadvertently responsible for the injury that killed his friend. In despair, he kills Tybalt in revenge. The prince decided to banish Romeo, “And for this offense, we exilons on the spot”
Juliette, overwhelmed by the news of his exile (announced by the nurse), managed to spend a wedding night with Romeo before he took the road to exile in Mantua. But his parents decided to hasten his marriage with Count Paris. It refuses, causing the wrath of Capulet and Lady Capulet. She decides to visit the cell of Friar Lawrence for help.
Friar Lawrence offers Juliet then take a potion that will give the appearance of death. It will be deposited in the vault of the Capulets where Romeo, warned by a letter, will get her out.
In the morning, the nurse discovers Juliet inanimate and all lament. The funeral takes place according to the plan of Brother Lawrence.
A plague prevents the Friar Lawrence’s messenger to carry his letter to Romeo, and only the news of Juliet’s death reaches him. He returned to Verona resolved to die on the grave of his young wife. There he meets the Count Paris, who came to bring flowers to his late fiancee, which leads to a duel and is killed. Romeo enters the crypt and says goodbye to Juliet before swallowing a vial of poison. Brother Lawrence discovered horrified her lifeless body. Juliet wakes up and realizing that Romeo is dead, gave him a last kiss before killing himself with Romeo’s dagger.
Prince Escalus, Montague (whose wife died of grief at night) and the couple Capulet are found in the cemetery. Friar Laurence tells them when the real story of two lovers, there’s evidence a letter that Romeo wrote before going to see Juliet in the cemetery. The two families are reconciled under the initiative of Capulet and Montague says he wants to raise a golden statue to the memory of their children.
Title page of the poem Romeus and Juliet of Arthur Brooke .
Romeo and Juliet has its origins in a series of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity, as the myth of Pyramus and Thisbe recounted in the Metamorphoses of Ovid : as in Shakespeare, the parents of two lovers hate and Pyramus falsely believes his beloved dead one . The room also has similarities with the Ephesiaca of Xenophon of Ephesus , written in the iii e century, as the separation of the lovers and the presence of a sleep-inducing potion like death 2 .
The names of the rival families, Capuleti and Montecchi , appear in xiv th century in the Divine Comedy of Dante , in Canto VI of Purgatory 3 , but only the Montagues are of Verona . The Capulets are Cremona , and the rivalry between the two houses is part of the conflict between Guelphs and Ghibellines throughout Lombardy , with no mention of any love story 4 .
A first draft of the story appeared in 1467 in the new and Mariotto Ganozza of Masuccio Salernitano , which takes place in Siena 5 . This version includes the secret marriage, the brother accomplice, the scuffle which saw the death of a prominent citizen, Mariotto’s exile, forced marriage Gianozza of the potion, and the loss of crucial message. In the end, Mariotto is caught and executed Gianozza and dies of sorrow 6 .
Luigi da Porto adapts the plot as the Giulietta e Romeo , published in 1530 in his Historia di due Nobili novellamente ritrovata Amanti 7 . Da Porto is inspired by the story of Pyramus and Thisbée, and the Decameron of Boccaccio , and gives the story much of its definitive characteristics: the names of lovers and their ultimate fate, the rivalry between Montecchi and Capuleti and part Verona 8 . It also introduces the characters who will become Mercutio , Tybalt and Paris from the pen of Shakespeare. Da Porto presents the story as authentic and that took place during the reign of Bartolomeo II della Scala , at the end of the xiv th century.
In 1554, Matteo Bandello published the second volume of his Novelle , which includes his version of Giulietta e Romeo 7 . It focuses on depression of Romeo at the beginning of the plot and the quarrel between the two families and introduces the characters of the nurse and Benvolio . This story is translated into French by Pierre Boaistuau in 1559, in the first volume of his tragic historical , his version is more moralistic and sentimental, and his characters do not hesitate to go into great rhetorical flourish Bins 9 .
The narrative poem of Arthur Brooke The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (1562) is a faithful translation of Boaistuau adapted to correspond in part to Troilus and Criseyde of Chaucer 10 . At the time, the public is fond of Italian tales, and many authors and playwrights publish texts inspired Novels of Italy. Shakespeare is no exception: The Merchant of Venice , Much Ado About Nothing , All’s Well That Ends Well , Measure for Measure and Romeo and Juliet inspired all of Novels . This is essentially a theatrical adaptation of the dramatization of Brooke: Shakespeare closely follows the poem, but deepens the characters, particularly Mercutio and the nurse 11 . He may have known Palace of Pleasure , a collection of Italian tales published by William Painter in 1567. This collection includes a prose version of the story of Romeo and Juliet on ” The goodly History of the true and constant love of Rhomeo and Julietta ” 12 .
Date of composition and publishing
Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet , published in 1599.
In the absence of records and who has not entered Shakespeare plays published during his lifetime, it is sometimes difficult to precisely date the writing of his dramatic works. It is not known exactly when he wrote Romeo and Juliet . Juliet’s nurse refers to an earthquake that took place eleven years ago, it may be a reference to the earthquake of April 6, 1580 , which hit southern England and northern France , in which case it would shift from the date of 1591. Other earthquakes in England and in Verona were discussed to propose other dates 13 . However, the stylistic similarities between Romeo and Juliet and The Dream of a summer night , and other parts usually dated 1594-1595, suggests that writing the tragedy took place between 1591 and 1595 14 . A conjecture is to consider that Shakespeare would have sketched a first draft of the play in 1591, he had rebuilt in 1595 15 .
Romeo and Juliet went through two editions in the format in quarto before the publication of the First Folio in 1623. Both editions are commonly referred to Q1 and Q2. The first edition, Q1, is printed by John Danter early 1597. Because of the many differences between this text and later editions, it is often called ” bad quarto “the xx th century editor TJB Storage Containers Spencer described it as “a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from incomplete memories of one or two players ” , suggesting it could be a pirate edition 16 . It is also possible that the defects are due to significant changes to the text of the play by the theater company who performs it, commonplace at the time 17 . Anyway, this publication is early 1597 to 1596 the date as late as possible composition of the piece 13 .
The Q2 version, better quality, is entitled The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet . It is printed in 1599 by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby . Longer than about 800 to Q1 17 , its title page describes it as “newly corrected, amended and developed” . Because it has several oddities textual variables as references the names of characters and “false starts”, probably removed by the author but erroneously preserved by the printer, experts estimate that Q2 is based on drafts Shakespeare (his ” foul papers “), dating from before the first interpretation of the play. However, this is a text more comprehensive and more reliable than Q1, which was reprinted in 1609 (Q3) in 1622 (Q4) and 1637 (Q5) 16 . In reality, all subsequent versions in quarto or in folio of Romeo and Juliet are based on Q2, as well as all the modern editions: publishers believe in fact that all deviations that appear in Q2 probably come later texts of composers and publishers or not Shakespeare himself 17 .
The text of the First Folio of 1623 is primarily based on Q3, with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a book or drama of Q1 16 , 18 . Other editions of the play in folio were created in 1632 (F2), 1664 (F3) and 1685 (F4) 19 . Modern versions, which take into account several folios and quartos, appear with the publication of Nicholas Rowe (1709), followed by that of Alexander Pope (1723). Pope is the first to correct the text of the play to add information (including stage directions) absent from Q2, but present in Q1. This is continued during the Romantic period, fully annotated editions appear on the Victorian era and continue to be produced today, the text of the play will be accompanied by footnotes to the pages with the sources and the cultural elements that behind 20 .
Themes and motifs
The play does not have a single dominant theme clearly defined. Have been proposed: the discovery by the characters that human beings are neither totally good nor totally evil 21 , enlightenment and the end of the dream, the dangers of hasty action, or the power of fate. None of these themes is no consensus among critics, but it is clear that the play includes several minor themes that intertwine in a complex 22 .
If I profane with my unworthiest hand
This holy shrine, the gentle sin is this:
My lips, Two blushing pilgrims, ready stand
To smooth rough touch with a That tender kiss. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For Saints Have Hand That pilgrims’ hands do touch, And palm to palm IS holy palmers’ kiss. ”
- Act I, Scene 5, v. 92-99.
Sometimes viewed as Romeo and Juliet has no theme other than that of young love 21 . The characters of the lovers have become archetypal lovers cursed. Something as obvious prompted critics to study the language and historical context behind the romance 23 .
At their first meeting, Romeo and Juliet use of metaphors, a form of communication recommended by the label at the time of Shakespeare. The metaphor of saints and sins, Romeo allows to test Juliet’s feelings for him. This method is recommended by Baldassare Castiglione , whose works were translated into English at the time. It states that if a man uses a metaphor as an invite, she can claim not to have understood, and may withdraw without his honor has been tarnished. Juliette however chooses to participate in the metaphor and develop. The religious metaphors are popular in the poetry of the time and more regarded as romantic as blasphemous, the concept of holiness is associated with a Catholic past 24 . Later in the play, Shakespeare removes the more daring allusions to Christ’s resurrection that appear in the poem by Arthur Brooke 25 .
Later, during the balcony scene, Shakespeare Romeo leaves Juliet’s monologue heard, while in Brooke’s version, it is only at this time. The introduction of Romeo in the scene is a departure from the normal course of a romance: women should be modest and shy to test the sincerity of their sighing. Breaking this rule will speed up the plot: the two lovers and save themselves a long period of mourning and can talk openly about their relationship, as to predict their marriage after only one night to have known 23 . The message of the final scene is contradictory to Catholic doctrine condemns suicides to hell, while those who die to be with their loved one (s) in the ” Religion of Love “to find paradise. It is this second vision that seems to prevail in the room. In addition, although their love is passionate, it is used after the wedding, which allows them not to alienate public sympathy 26 .
It can be argued that the piece combines love and sex to death. Throughout the story, the characters, including Romeo and Juliet, suggest death as a dark entity, often represented as a lover. So when death discovers Capulet (feigned) of Juliet, he described the death as having deflowered his daughter (Act IV, scene 5, v. 38-42). Later, Juliet compares Romeo and death. Just before killing herself, she grabs Romeo’s dagger and exclaimed: ” O happy dagger! This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die ” (Act V, Scene 3, v. 169-170) 27 .
Fate and chance
“O, I am fortune’s fool! ”
- Romeo, Act III, scene 1, v. 138.
The role of fate in the play is discussed: the characters are really doomed to die together, or events that they are the result of a series of unfortunate coincidences? The description of the lovers as ” star-cross’d ” suggests that the stars have predetermined their future 28 . John W. Draper connects the Elizabethan belief in the theory of humors to the main characters in the play (as Tybalt chicago dui attorney bilious, for example), an interpretation that reduced the share of the plot due to chance by modern audiences 29 . However, for others, the play is a series of unfortunate accident, to the point that they do not consider it a tragedy, but as a melodrama 29 . Ruth Nevo believes that the strong focus on the opportunity because of Romeo and Juliet a “minor tragedy” of coincidences rather than characters. For example, the challenge Tybalt in Romeo is not the result of an impulse: after the death of Mercutio, this is the natural course of events. For Nevo, in this scene, Romeo is aware of the danger of ignoring the social norms and obligations. He made the choice to kill because of the circumstances, not a tragic flaw 30 .
Duality (light and darkness)
“O brawling love, O loving hate,
O Any thing of nothing first create!
O heavy lightness, serious vanity,
Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms,
Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick Health,
Still-waking sleep, That Is not What It Is! ”
- Romeo, Act I, Scene 1, v. 167-171.
Shakespeare makes abundant use of images related to light and darkness throughout the play. Caroline Spurgeon considers the idea of light as “a symbol of the natural beauty of young love” , an interpretation adopted and developed by other critics 30 , 31 . So Romeo and Juliet see each other as a light at the heart of darkness. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun (Act II, scene 2), brighter than a torch (Act I, Scene 5, v. 42), a sparkling jewel in the night (Act I, Scene 5, v. 44 – 45), a shining angel in the clouds (Act II, scene 2, v. 26-32). Even when lying in the grave, apparently dead, ” Her beauty Makes / This vault a presence full of light Feasting ” . Juliet describes Romeo as ” day in night ” and ” Whiter Than Snow upon a raven’s back ” (Act III, scene 2, v. 17-19) 32 . This contrast between light and darkness metaphor is developed in opposition youth or love-hate old age 30 , sometimes creating the irony . For example, the love of Romeo and Juliet is a light at the heart of darkness of hatred around them, but they are still together at night, in darkness, while the quarrels and affrontementsse place in the open. This paradox develops the moral dilemma posed to the two lovers between loyalty to family and loyalty to their love. At the end of the room, the morning is gloomy and the sun is hidden by grief: light and darkness have returned to their natural places, the outer darkness reflecting the darkness of the internal family dispute. All the characters realize their folly in light of recent events, and things return to their natural order thanks to the love of Romeo and Juliet 31 . The theme of “light” is closely associated with time: the light is a convenient way for Shakespeare to express the passage of time through the description of the sun, moon and stars 33 .
‘These times of woe AFFORD no time to woo. ”
- Paris, Act III, scene 4, v. 8-9.
Time plays an important role in language and plot of the play. Faced with the harsh realities that surround them, Romeo and Juliet try to maintain both an imaginary world where time does not flow. So when Romeo swears by the moon of his love for Juliet, it protests ” O swear not by the moon, th’inconstant moon, / That monthly exchange In Her circled orb, / Lest thy love That PROVE Likewise variable ” (Act II, scene 2, v. 109-111). From the beginning, the lovers are described as ” star-cross’d ” in reference to a belief Zodiac related to the time that the stars control the destiny of men over time, the movement of stars in the sky reflect the Over the life. At the beginning of the play, Romeo speaks of a feeling related to the movement of stars and on the death of Juliet, he proclaims his desire to free themselves from the yoke of stars 29 , 34 .
Another central theme is the rapid passage of time: where Brooke’s poem extends over nine months, Romeo and Juliet takes place within four to six days 33 . According to G. Thomas Tansel, time is “particularly important to Shakespeare” in the room: the playwright speaks of “short time” for the lovers, as opposed to “long time” associated with “old generation” , to emphasize the idea of “a rush destiny” 33 . Romeo and Juliet are fighting against time to make their love last forever. In the end, the only way to conquer time is death, which makes them immortal through art 35 .
Time is also related to concepts of light and darkness. At the time of Shakespeare’s plays are often played in daylight, forcing the playwright to create the illusion of day and night through his poetry: Shakespeare, refers to the night and day, stars , the moon and sun. His characters are also a frequent reference to the days of the week and at specific times for the public to understand that the time has passed. The play contains well over 103 references to the time involved in the illusion of its flow 36 .
Criticism and interpretation
The oldest known critique of the piece appears in the Journal of Samuel Pepys in 1662: “It’s a piece of the worst I have ever heard in my life 37 ” . Ten years later, the poet John Dryden welcomes the piece and the character of Mercutio: martial arts denver “Shakeaspear showed the best of himself in his Mercutio , and he said himself, he was forced to kill in the third act, not to be killed by him 37 ” . Critics of the xviii th century are more numerous, but equally divided. The editor Nicholas Rowe was the first to examine the theme of the play: he said the just punishment of the two feuding families. The writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames describe the chess piece in that it does not follow the traditional rules according to which tragedy must occur because of a lack of character , and not because of an accident of chance. However, the writer and critic Samuel Johnson sees it as one of “more pleasant” Shakespeare 38 .
In the second half of the xviii th century and throughout the xix th century, the critical debate largely interested in the moral message of the play. The adaptation of David Garrick (1748) removes Rosaline, Romeo since its abandonment is considered proof of inconstancy and temerity. Some critics, like Charles Dibdin , even claim that the inclusion of Rosaline in the play has no other purpose than to show the inconsistency of the hero, the source of his tragic end. For others, calls for temperance Brother Lawrence reflect the opinion of Shakespeare himself. The xx th century century saw the questioning of the moral arguments: according to Richard Green Moulton , the death of the lovers is due to chance, not their faults 39 .
In Romeo and Juliet , Shakespeare employs several dramatic techniques critically acclaimed, especially the abrupt passages from comedy to tragedy, as the exchange of pleasantries between Benvolio and Mercutio before the arrival of Tybalt. Until the death of Mercutio in Act III, the play is actually largely a comedy 40 . His accidental death marks the transition to a tragic tone. When Romeo is banished rather than executed, and when the Friar Lawrence offers Juliet a plan for it to find Romeo, the public may still believe in a happy ending, until the beginning of the last scene: If Romeo is sufficiently delayed to allow the brother Lawrence arrived, he and Juliet can still be saved 41 . Alternating hope and despair and tragedy makes stronger when the final hope is disappointed, and the two lovers die 42 .
Shakespeare uses subplots to offer more insight into the actions of the main characters. For example, at the beginning of the play, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has rejected all his advances. This love affair offers a striking contrast to his later love for Juliet, which allows the public to grasp the seriousness of their marriage. Paris’s love for Juliet also a contrast between Juliet’s feelings for him and that of Romeo. The formal language she uses in the presence of Paris, and the way she speaks of him with his nurse, they show clearly biased towards Romeo. The hatred between the Capulets and Montagues extends over the entire room with a poisonous atmosphere that is primarily responsible for his tragic end 42 .
Shakespeare uses various poetic forms throughout the piece. It begins with a prologue of fourteen lines, spoken by a Chorus, whose form is that of a sonnet . However, most of the piece is in strict iambic pentameter , with less rhythmic variation than in most parts of the playwright later 43 . Shakespeare also associates the form to the person who is employed: for example, Lawrence’s brother expressed by sermons and sententiae , while a nanny employed to particularly close to the language of every day 43 . The form also reflects the emotions. Bankruptcy Thus, when Romeo talks about Rosaline at the beginning of the play, he tries to do pétrarquien sonnet , a form often used by men to glorify the beauty of an unattainable woman. Lady Capulet uses this same form to describe Paris to Juliet 44 . When Romeo and Juliet meet, abandons the Shakespeare sonnet pétrarquéen (a form of increasingly archaic at the time) for a more modern form of sonnet 45 . Finally, during the balcony scene, Romeo tries to express his love in the form of a sonnet, but Juliet interrupts him by saying: “Dost thou love me? ” In doing so, it seeks the true expression of feelings rather than a poetic exaggeration 46 . The room also includes an epithalamium (Juliette) and an elegy (Paris) 47 . The prose is usually reserved for the common people, although other people use it on occasion, as Mercutio 48 . Humor is also important: Molly Mahood has counted at least 175 jokes and puns in the text 49 , many of which are sexual in nature, particularly those involving Mercutio and the Nurse 50 .
Richard Burbage was probably the first interpreter of the role of Romeo 51 .
With Hamlet , Romeo and Juliet is one of the most played pieces by Shakespeare, and many adaptations have made it one of his most famous stories 52 . It is already very popular in the lifetime of its author. According to Gary Taylor, Romeo and Juliet is the sixth most popular piece during the period between the deaths of Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd and the success of Ben Jonson , the period during which Shakespeare was the playwright most famous of London 53 . The date of the first performance is unknown. The First Quarto, printed in 1597, says it has already been played ( ” Often it hath-been (and with great applause) plaid publiquely ” ), which is the first performance before that date. The first theater company to play is probably that of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men : in addition to its important links with Shakespeare, an error in the Second Quarto sees the name of Peter replaced by Will Kemp , one of the actors in this company. The first interpretation of Romeo is probably Richard Burbage , the leading actor of the company, and that of the boy Juliette Robert Goffe 51 . The first probably took place in Theatre , and other performances at the Curtain 54 . Romeo and Juliet is one of the first plays of Shakespeare to have been played outside England: a simplified and shortened version is played at Nördlingen in 1604 55 .
Under the Restoration and xviii th century
On September 6, 1642, all theaters were closed in England by the Puritan government. At the time of the Restoration in 1660, two companies were formed, the King’s Company and the Duke’s Company , which divide the existing theatrical repertoire 56 .
Mary Saunderson is probably the first professional actress Juliette to interpret.
In 1662, William Davenant , the Duke’s Company, a theatrical adaptation goes with Henry Harris in the role of Romeo, Thomas Betterton Mercutio and in that of Mary Saunderson , the wife of Betterton, in that of Juliet. It is probably the first woman to play this role professionally 57 . Another version is played regularly by the Duke’s Company: a tragicomedy by James Howard in which the two lovers survive 58 .
The History and Fall of Caius Marius , by Thomas Otway , has its first performance in 1680. This is one of the most radical adaptations of Shakespeare: the plot is moved from the Renaissance Verona to ancient Rome , Romeo is Marius, Juliet is Lavinia, and the conflict between patricians and plebeians, at the end , Juliet / Lavinia wakes before Romeo / Marius dies. Otway’s version is very popular: it is played during the seventy years after 57 . His version of the final scene is experiencing a life even better, being taken up by various adaptations for two centuries, like those of Theophilus Cibber (1744) and David Garrick (1748) 59 . These versions also remove items deemed inappropriate: for example, in the version of Garrick, all descriptions are transferred Rosaline to Juliet, to accentuate the theme of loyalty and reduce that of the lightning 60 . In 1750 began a “Battle of the Romeos” Theophilus Cibber adaptation is performed at Covent Garden , with Spranger Barry and Susannah Maria Arne (Cibber’s wife) in the lead roles, while David Garrick and George Anne Bellamy interpret Garrick’s version at Drury Lane 61 .
The first known U.S. production is amateur: March 23, 1730, a pharmacist named Bertrand Joachimus place an advertisement in the Gazette of New York for a performance in which he played the apothecary 62 . The first professional performances in North America are the result of the Hallam Company 63 .
In the xix th century
The Cushman sisters, Charlotte (Romeo) and Susan (Juliet) in 1846.
The amended version of the play by Garrick was a great success, and is played for nearly a century 57 . It was not until 1845 that the original of Shakespeare is played again, the United States, with the sisters Susan car transport company and Charlotte Cushman in the roles of Romeo and Juliet 64 , then in 1847 in the United Kingdom with Samuel Phelps at Sadler’s Wells Theatre 65 . Cushman adhered to Shakespeare’s version, beginning a series of eighty-four performance. His interpretation of Romeo is considered exceptional by many spectators, writes The Times : “Romeo has long been agreed. That of Miss Cushman is creative, a living human being, animated, ardent 66 ” . Queen Victoria wrote in her diary that “no one could have imagined that it was a woman 67 ” . The success of Cushman puts an end to the tradition garrickienne and paves the way for later performances returning to the original 57 .
The professional performances of Shakespeare in the xix th century have two characteristics. First, they are usually centered around the main characters and supporting roles are marginalized or even eliminated. They are also “pictorial”: the action takes place in spectacular scenery and developed (often requiring long pauses between scenes), with frequent use of tableaux vivants 68 . The staging of Henry Irving at the Lyceum Theatre in London (1895), with himself in the role of Romeo and Ellen Terry in that of Juliet, is considered the archetype of the pictorial style 69 . In 1895, Johnston Forbes-Robertson replaces Irving and sets the stage for more natural interpretations of Shakespeare, still popular today. He abandoned the luxury of Irving and offers a more prosaic Romeo, expressing the poetic dialogue as realistic prose and avoiding melodramatic emphasis 70 .
The American actors are beginning to compete with their British colleagues. On February 3, 1869, Edwin Booth (brother of John Wilkes Booth ) and Mary McVicker (the future wife of Edwin) make their debut in the roles of Romeo and Juliet at the sumptuous Booth’s Theatre , with a stage at the European machinery and an air conditioning system so unique throughout New Denver Divorce Lawyer York. Some say this is one of the most popular productions of Romeo and Juliet ever seen in the United States and it is certainly the most t shirt printing popular six weeks of benefits amounting to more of £ 60 000 71 .
The first professional representation of the play in Japan may be that of George Crichton Miln Company, which stops at Yokohama in 1890 72 . Romeo and Juliet was the play of Shakespeare’s most popular in xix th century in terms the number of professional performances, and it takes second place in the xx th century, behind Hamlet 73 .
In the xx th century
In 1933, actress Katharine Cornell and her husband, director Guthrie McClintic , call the denver car accident attorney room up to date. They travel the United States for seven months and face a modest success with actors such as Orson Welles , Brian Aherne and Basil Rathbone . Upon returning to New York, Cornell and McClintic revise the text and recover almost all of the original text, including the Prologue. Their new production began in December 1934, with Ralph Richardson in the role of Mercutio and Maurice Evans in that of Romeo. Criticism particularly welcomed Cornell’s performance in the role of Juliet 74 .
The actor John Gielgud has played Romeo, Mercutio and Friar Lawrence.
In 1935, the staging of the New Theatre in John Gielgud ‘s key players Gielgud and Laurence Olivier in the roles of Romeo and Mercutio (they exchange roles after six weeks), and Peggy Ashcroft in the Juliet 75 . This staging combines texts Q1 and Q2, and the costumes and accessories are seeking to come as close as possible to the Elizabethan era. She meets a great commercial success, and his search for historical realism inspired many subsequent staging 76 .
In 1947, Peter Brook launches another vision of Romeo and Juliet : it looks less likely that one way to bring historic part of the modern world 77 . He rejects the final reconciliation of the two families of its staging 78
Under the influence of cinema, the audience accepts less and less likely actors too old for the lead roles 79 . A casting is that of a very young Franco Zeffirelli for his production at the Old Vic in 1960 with John Stride and Judi Dench , as the basis for his 1968 movie 78 .
The recent staging often choose to register the plot in the modern world. In 1986, the Royal Shakespeare Company located in the Verona Now: the notches are replacing swords and Romeo commits suicide by hypodermic injection 80 . In 1997, the staging of the Folger Shakespeare Theatre depicts a typical suburban Romeo meets Juliet at the Capulet barbecue, and Juliet is being when she learns the death of Tybalt 81 .
The play is sometimes written in a different context in order to reflect the public about the underlying conflicts. Thus, the story was in the heart of Israeli-Palestinian conflict 82 , in South Africa at the time of apartheid 83 , or shortly after the Pueblo Revolt 84 . Similarly, the adaptation of comic Peter Ustinov Romanoff and Juliet (1956) takes place in an imaginary country in Central Europe during the Cold War 85 . A parody of Victorian reconstruction of the final scene of Romeo and Juliet is at the heart of the play The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (1980) 86 .
In the xix th century and xx th century, Romeo and Juliet has often been Shakespeare’s first choice for a classical theater company, for example the company reformed the Old Vic with John Gielgud, Martita Hunt and Margaret Webster 1929 87 or the Riverside Shakespeare Company in 1977.
Main article: List of Works adapted Romeo and Juliet .
There are at least twenty-four operas inspired by Romeo and Juliet 88 . The first, Romeo und Julie (1776), is a Singspiel by Georg Benda , it cuts much of the action and most of the characters, and ends with a happy ending. The best known is the Romeo and Juliet (1867) of Charles Gounod , libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré , who meets a triumphant success in its creation and is frequently played today 89 . I Capuleti ei Montecchi by Vincenzo Bellini ( libretto by Felice Romani ) is also interpreted from time to time, rather than a direct adaptation of Shakespeare, he is inspired by Italian sources, including Romani’s libretto for an opera by Nicola Vaccai 90 .
The dramatic symphony Romeo and Juliet , of Hector Berlioz , is played for the first time in 1839 91 . Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed his 1869 tone poem Romeo and Juliet , pay day loan in 1870 and revised in 1880 and contains a particular melody during the recovery ball scene, that the balcony in the room and Juliet in the tomb 92 . This technique has been replicated in other adaptations: the theme composed by Nino Rota is used in a similar way in the film of 1968, as the song from Des’ree Kissing You in the 1996 film 93 . The play has inspired other classical composers, including Johan Svendsen ( Romeo og Julie , 1876), Frederick Delius ( A Village Romeo and Juliet , 1899-1901) and Wilhelm Stenhammar ( Romeo och Julia , 1922) 94 .
The most famous ballets of the piece is inspired by the Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev 95 . It is rejected by the Kirov Ballet , who had commanded, when Prokofiev tried to introduce a happy ending, and because of the experimental nature of his music. This ballet has since gained a reputation as chiropractic marketing prodigious, and it was choreographed by John Cranko (1962) and Kenneth MacMillan (1965), among others 96 .
Romeo and Juliet has inspired many works of jazz , including the song Fever by Peggy Lee 97 . The album of Duke Ellington Such Sweet Thunder (1957) contains a play called The Star-Crossed Lovers , in which the couple is represented by two saxophones, a tenor and an alto; far from being treated equally, saxophone Juliet clearly dominates the composition 98 . In popular music , the play has inspired songs with The Supremes , with Bruce Springsteen , Taylor Swift , Tom Waits and Lou Reed 97 , and Dire Straits , with the song Romeo and Juliet is perhaps the most famous of the lot 99
The most famous musical piece is adapted from the West Side Story , with music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim . Launched in 1957 on Broadway and in the West End in 1958, is the subject of a film adaptation in 1961. As part of the plot is moved to the New York xx th century, and the feuding families are replaced by ethnic gangs 100 . Other musicals resume the play: William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet of Terrence Mann , co-written with Jerome Korman (1999), Romeo and Juliet, from hate to love to Presgurvic Gerard (2001) and Romeo & Juliet in Richard Cocciante (2007) 101 .
Film and Television
Romeo and Juliet is perhaps the play that has seen the greatest film adaptation 102 . Of these, the most famous being the film of George Cukor , released in 1936 and named for several Oscars , one of Franco Zeffirelli , released in 1968 , and Romeo + Juliet in Baz Luhrmann , released in 1996 . Movies of Zeffirelli and Luhrmann are at the time of their release, the most lucrative adaptations of Shakespeare ever filmed 103 .
The first film adaptation of Romeo and Juliet is performed by Georges Méliès in the era of silent, but his film is now lost 102 . The characters speak for the first time on the screen in 1929 in Hollywood singing and dancing : John Gilbert to recite the balcony scene alongside Norma Shearer 104 .
Norma Shearer takes over the role of Juliet in the film made for MGM in 1936 by George Cukor, with Leslie Howard in the role of Romeo, between them, the main actors are over 75 years. Neither the public nor the critics do not show enthusiasm, the audience found the film too “arty”. This failure, which follows that of the Dream of a Summer Night of Warner last year, involves the abandonment of any adaptation of Shakespeare for over ten years 105 .
In 1954 , Renato Castellani won the Golden Lion from the Venice Film Festival for his Romeo and Juliet 106 . His Romeo, Laurence Harvey , is an experienced actor, while his Juliet, Shentall Susan, is a student spotted in a London pub, chosen for the role physical appearance only 107 .
Stephen Orgel describes the film as Franco Zeffirelli’s “full of beautiful young men, sexual energy and beauty are enhanced with the best possible way by the camera and the colors lush 108 ” . The main actors, Leonard Whiting and Olivia Hussey , adolescents are inexperienced, but they play their roles with maturity 109 . A nude scene is controversial because Olivia Hussey is fifteen years older than 110 .
Romeo + Juliet in Baz Luhrmann, released in 1996, is directly addressed to the ” MTV generation “, which is the same age as the protagonists, played by Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes 111 . Darker than Zeffirelli film, Romeo + Juliet is set in “society coarse, violent and superficial” Verona Beach and Sycamore Grove 112 .
Other adaptations of Romeo and Juliet happy away from the source material. In 1960 , part parody of Peter Ustinov Romanoff and Juliet , which is set in the Cold War , is adapted to film 85 and the following year, it was the turn of the musical West Side Story , situated in the context of a gang war in New York 113 . In 2007 comes the anime Romeo x Juliet , produced by Gonzo and Sky Perfect Well Think , which contains references to other Shakespeare plays.
Several films have Shakespeare during the writing of the piece 114 . Of these, one of the best known is Shakespeare in Love , directed by John Madden and released in theaters in 1998 , in which the playwright’s love life echoes that of his characters 115 . As the film Rome & Jewel , an adaptation of an interracial Romeo and Juliet, based on the same piece, with Nate Parker and Lindsey Haun .